In laptop science and software engineering, formal methods are a particular type of mathematically primarily based strategies for the specification, development and verification of software program and hardware systems. The usage of formal techniques for software and hardware design is encouraged by way of the truth that, as in different engineering disciplines, acting suitable mathematical evaluation can make a contribution to the reliability and robustness of a design.
System Analysis And Software Engineering Notes
Formal strategies are great described because the utility of a fairly wide style of theoretical laptop science basics, especially logic calculi, formal languages, automata idea, and application semantics, however also kind structures and algebraic records sorts to troubles in software and hardware specification and verification. Formal techniques can be a foundation for describing complicated systems. Be a foundation for reasoning approximately structures. Provide help for program development. In contrast to other system design procedures, formal methods use mathematical proof as a supplement to device trying out with the intention to ensure correct behavior. As systems grow to be more complex, and protection becomes a greater vital difficulty, the formal technique to system layout gives any other degree of coverage. Formal strategies vary from different design methods by the use of formal verification schemes, the basic concepts of the machine need to be established correct earlier than they’re customary. Traditional machine design uses significant checking out to verify conduct, but trying out is capable of simplest finite conclusions. E.
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Dijkstra and others have proven that exams can assist to locate fails and insects, however can’t assure their absence. In contrast, once a theorem is confirmed genuine it remains actual. It’s far very essential to observe that formal verification does no longer obviate the want for testing. Formal verification cannot repair terrible assumptions in the layout; however, it may help discover mistakes in reasoning which could otherwise be left unverified. In numerous cases, engineers have mentioned finding flaws in structures after they reviewed their designs officially.
The purpose of this course is to learn how to specify behavior of systems and to experience the design of a system where you can prove that the behavior is correct.
Expected Learning Outcomes
To model diverse lessons of dispensed systems within suitable formalisms
To model diverse classes of disbursed structures inside appropriate formalisms;
To interpret and observe the formal languages of the formalisms for modeling distributed systems
To apply specific strategies for the analysis and verification of allotted systems;
To formulate and show properties of allotted systems inside studied formalisms
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Formal methods as a basis for software reliability
Floyd method for verification of sequential programs. Hoare axiomatic semantics for sequential and parallel programs.
Finite state machines (FSMs): basic definitions, operational semantics. Categories of FSMs. Extended FSMs. Modeling concurrent systems with communicating FSMs.
Petri nets: basic notions, definitions and classification. Modeling distributed systems with Petri nets.
Petri nets analysis. Checking structural and behavioral properties.
High-level Petri nets. Colored Petri nets and CPNTools.
Modeling distributed and concurrent system with process algebras. Structured operational semantics and its formalization (SOS). Algebra CCS: syntax, semantics, modeling technique.
The notion and properties of bisimilarity relation.
Verifying reactive concurrent systems with CCS. Hennesy-Milner logic and temporal properties. The notion of fixed point and Tarski’s fixed-point theorem
Transition systems and program graphs. Nondeterminism, parallelism and communication. Peterson algorithm
Specifying distributed systems with Promela. Spin model checker.
Temporal logics LTL and CTL for specification of behavioral properties of reactive systems.
Automata-based approach for verification of LTL formulae.
Model checking algorithm for verification of CTL formulae