Operating System in Hindi Urdu Handouts Notes

On this path students can be taught the basics of running structures. specific fashions of working structures may be added. references and examples may be quoted and explained from unix, home windows and multics working environments. the focused might be at the maximum cutting-edge idea of running structures as a creator of abstraction e.g. abstraction of cpu into multiple tactics, abstraction of memory into virtual deal with area or abstraction of disk into documents might be explained.

The scholars might be familiarized with distinct os structure fashions and their additives. the functionalities and obligations of different modules of running systems including manner control, reminiscence control, i/o management and report control can be defined and discussed in element. few case studies can be undertaken to explain and take a look at the features of unix, home windows and embedded working systems.

01CHAPTER-1:  INTRODUCTION:WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? The Operating System as an Extended Machine, The Operating System as a Resource Manager HISTORY OF OPERATING SYSTEMS
The First Generation (1945-55), The Second Generation (1955-65) , The Third Generation (1965-1980), Fourth Generation (1980-Present)
02THE OPERATING SYSTEM ZOO
COMPUTER HARDWARE REVIEW, OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPTS; Processes, Deadlocks, Memory Management,
03OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPTS; (continued) Input/Output, I/O (by Polling, Interrupt and DMA) Files, Security, The Shell.
04OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPTS; Process Management; System Calls, File System Management and APIs.
05OPERATING SYSTEM STRUCTURE
Monolithic Systems, Layered Systems, Microkernel, Exo-kernels , Client-Server Model, Virtual Machines and Virtual Machines rediscovered.
06CHAPTER-2: PROCESSES AND THREADS
PROCESSES: The Process Model , Process Creation, Process Termination, Process Hierarchies, Process States, Implementation of Processes, Processes and Threads. The Thread Model , Thread Usage, Implementing Threads in User Space,
07THREADS: Implementing Threads in the Kernel, Hybrid Implementations, Scheduler Activations, Pop up Threads. Making single thread Multithreaded.
08INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATION 
Race Conditions , Critical Regions, Mutual Exclusion with Busy Waiting, Sleep and Wakeup,
09Semaphores,  Mutexes, Conditional variables, Monitors, Message Passing, Barriers.
10SCHEDULING ,Introduction to Scheduling ,Scheduling in Batch Systems, Pre-emptive and Non Pre-emptive scheduling. Different scheduling Algorithms.
11Scheduling in Interactive Systems,  Scheduling in Real-Time Systems,  Policy versus Mechanism,  Thread Scheduling
12CHAPTER-3:  MEMORY MANAGEMENT : BASIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT: Mono-programming without Swapping, Multiprogramming with Fixed Partitions ,  Modeling Multiprogramming, Analysis of Multiprogramming System Performance, Relocation and Protection, Contagious Memory. Memory Management with Bitmaps , Memory Management with Linked Lists
13VIRTUAL MEMORY Management: Paging , Page Tables , Page fault handling, MMU, TLBs (Translation Look-aside Buffers ) , Inverted Page Tables
14PAGE REPLACEMENT ALGORITHMS
The Optimal Page Replacement Algorithm ,  The Not Recently Used Page Replacement Algorithm ,  The First-In, First-Out, The Second Chance Page Replacement Algorithm,  The Clock Page Replacement Algorithm, The Least Recently Used, Simulating LRU in Software, The Working Set Page Replacement Algorithm ,  The WSClock Page Replacement Algorithm ,Summary of Page Replacement Algorithms
15DESIGN ISSUES FOR PAGING SYSTEMS
Local versus Global Allocation Policies , Load Control , Page Size , Separate Instruction and Data Spaces , Shared Pages , Cleaning Policy Virtual Memory Interface
16IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES: Operating System Involvement with Paging , Page Fault Handling ,
17PERFORMANCE ISSUES: Instruction Backup Locking Pages in Memory Backing Store , Separation of Policy and Mechanism
18SEGMENTATION: Implementation of Pure Segmentation , Segmentation with Paging: MULTICS , Segmentation with Paging: The Intel Pentium
19CHAPTER-4: FILE SYSTEMS: FILES;  File Naming , File Structure , File Types , File Access , File Attributes , File Operations ,
An Example Program Using File System Calls , Memory-Mapped Files
DIRECTORIES; Single-Level Directory Systems , Two-level Directory Systems , Hierarchical Directory Systems , Path Names , Directory Operations
20FILE SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION: File System Layout , allocating Blocks to file, Contiguous allocation, linked allocation, i-nodes allocation. Implementing Directories.
21Shared Files, i-node problems and solutions, symbolic links,
Log-Structured File Systems, Journaling File Systems, Disk space management.
22Disk space management, (Manage Free Blocks ), Manage Disk quota File System Backups, File System Consistency, File System Performance Examples of File System
23CHAPTER -5 : INPUT/OUTPUT: PRINCIPLES OF I/O HARDWARE
I/O Devices , Device Controllers , Memory-Mapped I/O , Direct Memory Access ,  Interrupts Revisited, Precise and Imprecise Interrupts
24PRINCIPLES OF I/O SOFTWARE:  Goals of the I/O Software ,  Programmed I/O ,  Interrupt-Driven I/O ,  I/O Using DMA
25I/O SOFTWARE LAYERS Interrupt Handlers , Device Drivers , Device-Independent I/O Software , User-Space I/O Software
26DISKS:  Disk Hardware , Disk Arm Scheduling Algorithms,  Error Handling CD, DVD.
27Disk RAIDs. CLOCKS :  Clock Hardware ,  Clock Software ,  Soft Timers
28CHAPTER- 6:  DEADLOCKS: RESOURCES: Preempt able and Non-pre-emptible Resources , Resource Acquisition, Conditions for Deadlock,  Deadlock Modeling , The Ostrich algorithm , DEADLOCK DETECTION AND RECOVERY : Deadlock Detection with One Resource of Each Type, Deadlock Detection with Multiple,  Resource of Each Type, Recovery from Deadlock
29DEADLOCK AVOIDANCE , Resource Trajectories, Safe and Unsafe States, The Banker’s Algorithm for a Single Resource, The Banker’s Algorithm for Multiple Resources , DEADLOCK PREVENTION :Attacking the Mutual Exclusion Condition’, Attacking the Hold and Wait Condition , Attacking the No Preemption Condition , Attacking the Circular Wait Condition, OTHER ISSUES: Two-Phase Locking , Non-resource Deadlocks, Starvation
30Case Study; Windows VISTA
31Case Study; LINUX
32IT Essentials: Useful  Practical Tips regarding the installation, operation and maintenance of an Operating System