Lecture Outline Statistics in Hindi Urdu

Statistics and its importance

Basic Definitions:

Types of statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Types of Variables

Qualitative and Quantitative variables

Level of measurement of a variable

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Methods of Data Presentations

Classification of Data

Tabulation of Data

Table of frequency distributions

Frequency Distribution

Relative frequency distribution

Cumulative frequency distribution

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• Graphical Methods of Data Presentations

• Graphs for quantitative data

o Histograms

o Frequency Polygon

o Cumulative Frequency Polygon (Frequency Ogive)

Graphs For Quantitative Data

Common methods for graphing quantitative data are:

• Histogram

• Frequency Polygon

• Frequency Ogive

Lecture Outline

Methods of Data Presentations

Classification of Data

Tabulation of Data

Table of frequency distributions

Frequency Distribution

Relative frequency distribution

Cumulative frequency distribution

lecture define

techniques of statistics presentations

type of facts

tabulation of data

table of frequency distributions

frequency distribution

relative frequency distribution

cumulative frequency distribution

Organizing statistics

after accumulating records, the primary mission for a researcher is to prepare and simplify the facts in order that it’s miles feasible to get a fashionable evaluation of the consequences.

uncooked facts: information which isn’t always prepared is called uncooked information.

un-grouped statistics: statistics in its original shape is referred to as un-grouped facts.

observe: uncooked records is likewise referred to as ungrouped facts.

extraordinary approaches of organizing statistics

to get an information of the records, it is prepared and organized into a meaningful shape.

this is carried out by means of the following methods:

type

tabulation (e.g. simple tables, frequency tables, stem and leaf plots etc.)

graphs (bar graph, pie chart, histogram, frequency ogive and so on.)

Type of facts

the technique of arranging statistics into homogenous organization or instructions according to some common characteristics present in the records is called category.

instance:

the technique of sorting letters in a put up office, the letters are classified consistent with the cities and in addition organized according to streets.

Statistics in Hindi Urdu

Bases of classification

there are 4 essential bases of classification:

qualitative base

quantitative base

geographical base

chronological or temporal base

Qualitative base:

when the records are labeled in line with a few best or attributes including intercourse, religion, and many others.

quantitative base:

whilst the information are categorised through quantitative traits like heights, weights, a while, income and many others.

Geographical base:

when the records are categorised via geographical regions or region, like states, provinces, cities, international locations and so forth.

chronological or temporal base:

when the data are labeled or organized with the aid of their time of incidence, such as years, months, weeks, days and many others. (e.g. time series facts).

Forms of classification

there are three fundamental styles of classifications:

one -manner category

two-manner category

multi-manner classification

one -way classification

if we classify located facts maintaining in view single characteristic, this type of class is called one-way category.

Instance:

the population of worldwide may be categorized by means of faith as muslim, christian etc.

Two-manner type

if we recollect two traits at a time so that it will classify the discovered statistics then we are doing two way classifications.

example:

the population of worldwide can be categorized by using faith and sex.

Multi-way type in Hindi Urdu

if we recall more than two traits at a time so that you can classify the located records then we are doing multi-manner type.

instance:

the populace of worldwide may be labeled by way of faith, intercourse and literacy.

Tabulation of statistics in Hindi Urdu

the technique of putting classified statistics into tabular shape is referred to as tabulation. a table is a symmetric association of statistical data in rows and columns. rows are horizontal arrangements whereas columns are vertical arrangements.

kinds of tabulation

there are 3 forms of tabulation:

easy or one-way table

double or two-way desk

complicated or multi-way table

easy or one-manner table

when the information are tabulated to one function, it is said to be simple tabulation or one-manner tabulation.

example:

Tabulation of facts on populace of world categorized via one feature like faith, is an example of easy tabulation.

double or two-manner desk

whilst the statistics are tabulated in line with two characteristics at a time. it’s miles stated to be double tabulation or two-way tabulation.

instance:

tabulation of statistics on population of worldwide categorised by using characteristics like religion and sex, is an instance of double tabulation.

complex or multi-manner table

whilst the facts are tabulated according to many characteristics (commonly greater than two), it is said to be complex tabulation.

example:

tabulation of information on populace of world labeled by 3 characteristics like religion, sex and literacy and so forth.

Production of statistical desk

a statistical desk has as a minimum 4 predominant parts and a few other minor parts.

the title

the container head (column captions)

the stub (row captions)

the body

prefatory notes

foot notes

supply notes

Standard rules of tabulation

a desk must be easy and appealing. a complex desk can be damaged into highly easy tables.

headings for columns and rows must be proper and clear.

appropriate approximation may be followed and figures can be rounded off. however this need to be stated within the prefatory observe or inside the foot be aware.

the unit of dimension and nature of statistics have to be properly defined.

organizing facts thru frequency tables

one approach for simplifying and organizing facts is to construct a frequency distribution.

frequency distribution: the organisation of a set of facts in a table showing the distribution of the facts into classes or groups together with the range of observations in each elegance or organization is called a frequency distribution.

class frequency: the variety of observations falling in a selected magnificence is called magnificence frequency or clearly frequency, denoted by means of ‘f’.

grouped information: facts presented within the form of a frequency distribution is referred to as grouped data.

why use frequency distributions?

a frequency distribution is a manner to summarize facts.

a frequency distribution condenses the uncooked statistics into a more significant form.

a frequency distribution allows for a quick visual interpretation of the information.

frequency distributions may be drawn for qualitative statistics in addition to quantitative statistics.

Grouped frequency distribution

on occasion, while the information is continuous or covers a extensive range of values, it will become very burdensome to make a listing of all values as if so the listing could be too lengthy.

to remedy this case, a grouped frequency distribution desk is used.

steps in building grouped frequency distribution

sort uncooked data from low to high:

discover variety:

range=most price – minimum price=58 – 12 = forty six

pick wide variety of training: 5 (commonly between five and 20)

compute class width:

magnificence width=range/no of sophistication=46/5=nine.2 ~ 10

decide elegance limits

matter the quantity of values in every elegance